Going back to history, we find numerous instances and examples of dance, music and drama evolving in Varanasi. Excavations at Varanasi have shown a terracotta figurine, in which two musicians are playing percussion instruments. The literature of ancient and medieval times also point out to a great tradition of music in Kashi or Varanasi. The Bhakti movement in the medieval period also contributed to the development of music in Varanasi. Great saint Chaitanya and Vallabhacharya played an important role in the development and popularity of music in Varanasi. Saints like Surdas, Kabeer, Raidas, Meera and Tulsi also made rich and valuable contributions to the devotional music and their Bhajans are popular to even this day.
Benaras also developed as a great center of Dhrupad style of singing. In the 16th century, Govind Chandra ruled Varanasi and during his regime Dhrupad was the royal music. With the development of Dhrupad, other styles like Dhamar, Hori and Chaturang also grew. The Famous Assarwari, "Ghunghat ke pat Khol" was made famous by the Nirgun singers of Kashi while Meer Rustam (the Nawab of Awadh) patronised Music Festivals like Jhoola, Jhoomar, Kajri, Birha, Dangal, Gulab Bari and music festivals on boats. Over a period of time Tappa form of singing also became popular in Varanasi and its main exponents were Shori Miyan, Gammu Khan and Shade Khan.
Over a period of time, the Maharajas of Kashi or Varanasi also gave patronage to music and that resulted in making Varanasi a great center of music. Here, it's important to note the contribution of Maharaj Prabhu Narayan Singh, who gave patronage to Bahadur Shah's court Musicians like Waris Ali, Akbar Ali, Nisar Khan, Sadiq Ali and great Ashiq Ali Khan. Ali Mohammad and Ali Bux, the sons of Basat Khan, were considered the "jewels" of Kashi Darbar. Thus, a galaxy of great musicians made Banaras a great center of music. Varanasi saw the development of Banarasi Thumri, Dadra, Chaiti, Hori, Bhairavi, Kajri, Tarana, Ghato and much more. Besides these major streams, lesser-known forms like Tirwat, Sadra, Khamsa, Lavni, Chaturang, Sargam, Ragmala, Kirtan, Qauwali, Kathagayan, Bhajan and Ramayan also developed at Varanasi.
Varanasi is also associated with many great instrumentalists. Sehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan is famous world wide while Sitar maestro Pandit Ravi Shankar has earned wide acclaim throughout the world. Other instrumentalists who have left their mark are Madan Mohan, Bhola Nath, Pathak, Mannuji, Amarnath Mishra, Brindwan Das, Ramdeo and Subodh Babu